Sometime ago I came across this wonderful website where Sean Howard shares his game design ideas with the world. There are over 200 drafts and concepts on game mechanics that everyone can use freely. So if you are looking for some inspiration about your projects take a look! You can also follow the designer on twittter.
And since you went through the trouble of actually reading this, here is a doc describing basic game mechanics using flashcards. In each flashcard you get the name of the mechanic, a description and a nice example! You can also find it in slides in slideshare.
Happy studying and creating!